Preserving foods for extraordinarily very long time was once a necessity of mankind since time immemorial. The availability of sure foods items was once limited to a decided on season. Man’s need to employ them throughout the year motivated him to invent sure methods by which foods items may well be stored for a longer period without a vital industry in taste.
Food items will also be classified into perishable and non-perishable foods items. Perishable items are those which get spoilt briefly and are additional liable to the attack of micro-organisms. Examples of a couple of such items are vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, milk and lots of others. These items have a very temporary shelf lifestyles. On the other hand non-perishable foods are those which take a longer period to get spoilt like rice, wheat, oils, dried pulses and lots of others.
The function of the usage of preservatives is to change into the ones perishable foods items to non-perishable ones or extend the shelf-life. Food gets spoilt on account of the attack of micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi, yeast and lots of others. They ship some undesirable chemical changes throughout the foods. Food preservatives inhibit the ones chemical changes through various ways.
Food preservatives are of two varieties: natural and artificial; and every try to take care of the usual, edibility and nutritive worth of the foods.
Classification of Natural Food Preservatives
Depending on their mode of movement, foods preservatives are extensively categorized into three varieties.
• Antimicrobial preservatives which inhibit the growth of the microorganisms
• Antioxidant preservatives which inhibit the oxidation of foods parts like fats, lipids and lots of others
• Preservatives which objective the enzymes throughout the foods stuffs and subsequently prevent the natural movements like ripening of foods or put up harvest ageing of foods stuffs.
Some of the natural foods preservatives include elements like salt, sugar, rosemary extract, essential oils, vinegar and lots of others. Out of the ones, elements like salt, sugar and oils are used in our day-to-day lifestyles. Ongoing research is targeted towards the search of a couple of new natural foods preservatives. Let us talk about about a few preservatives in detail.
Salt: Salt has been used to stay foods items like meat and fish since ages. At very top concentrations of salt the cells of the micro-organisms free water and dehydrate by the use of the process of osmosis. It inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts and molds by the use of the process of osmosis. Salting of meat preserves it for years. During pickling, raw mangoes, tomatoes and lots of others are treated with considerably huge amounts of salt. Even some vegetables like cabbage cauliflower and cucumber will also be preserved by the use of pickling them with salting.
Sugar: Sugar is a carbohydrate and the mechanism by which it retail outlets foods is the same as that of salt. This substance moreover dehydrates the microorganisms by the use of the process of osmosis. There are two ways in which the foods stuffs will also be stored in sugar.
1. Thick concentrated sugar syrup will also be in a position and the foods elements will also be immersed in it.
2. The foods items will also be cooked in sugar until sugar reaches the aim of crystallization. The subsequent focal point of sugar sweetens the foods and each inhibits the growth of microorganisms or kills them by the use of the process of osmosis. Sugar is typically used to stay fruits like apple, peach, pear, plum and lots of others inside of the kind of jams and jellies.
Vinegar: This acidic answer is in a position by the use of the fermentation of sugar and water answer. The process of fermentation is carried previous the alcohol degree. Vinegar accommodates acetic acid which kills the bacteria on account of its acidity or lower pH. Vinegar is used to stay meats and vegetables right through pickling. Even right through the process of canning vinegar is used to increase the shelf life of the foods items.
Rosemary Extract: This is in a position by the use of the distillation of rosemary leaves and is known for its pleasant aroma and style. This substance has been used as a preservative since ages as a result of its antioxidant properties. It prevents the oxidation of foods stuffs thus protective the flavor and color of the foods. The natural compounds supply throughout the Rosemary extract like phenolic diterpenes, rosmarinic acid, carnosol are responsible for its antioxidant properties.
Some Traditional Practices of Food Preservation
With the improvement in technology, man has conquered many tricky situations. In olden days, method of supply were not that atmosphere pleasant and moreover vegetation and vegetables grown in a decided on area had been very so much dependent on the seasonal must haves in that area. These must haves impressed other people these days to evolve sure practices which helped them to stay foods throughout the year. Some of the ones typical practices are as follows –
• Indian plums frequently known as ber in Hindi and regu pandu in Telugu is a seasonal fruit which is typically seen available in the market between Jan – march. A dish known as regu adaa helps to stay it for all the year. To get in a position this, seeds are removed and the fruits are crushed proper right into a semi-solid paste. After together with salt, the paste is made into small biscuits and then sun dried.
• Cluster beans frequently known as Guar-ki-phalli in Hindi and goru chikkudu in Telugu is a nutritious vegetable. In order to stay it we wish to reduce them into medium size pieces and soak them in buttermilk along side salt. This must be soaked for a span of 24 hours and then sundried. These sundried pieces will also be fried in oil and eaten along side rice.
• Coccinia cordifolia frequently known as kundru in Hindi and dondakayi in Telugu will also be reduce into pieces. After applying salt to these pieces, they are able to be sun-dried and later the ones pieces will also be stored for a longer period. Whenever required they are able to be fried and taken along side rice.
• Brinjal frequently known as baingan in Hindi and vankai in Telugu could also be very frequently used vegetable during India. Even this vegetable will also be reduce into pieces and dried in sun after applying salt. Before cooking the dried pieces must be soaked for phase an hour and then can be used to organize a tasty curry along side tamarind water and jaggery.
• Mango – Good raw mangoes are available highest in the summer season. They will also be preserved in different varieties of pickles. Apart from that small mango pieces will also be sundried after device of salt. These mango pieces will also be added to dhal through out the year.
It is right kind that at the present time we get all the foods stuffs throughout the year with a variation in worth. Fruits at the moment are now not seasonal and they are ripened with the help of chemicals like ethylene. A few months once more spherical November 2010 there was once a heavy increase available in the market worth of all the vegetables. This crisis situation stayed for a span of three months but it surely definitely affected many people. If we will be able to adopt the ones typical practices in our everyday lifestyles we will be able to be ready to face any form of abnormal situations. Not highest this, we will be able to prevent the wastage of huge quantities of foods items moreover.
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